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不规则动词表  

2010-08-06 12:34:02|  分类: 时态 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

不规则动词表

  1.A-A-A型(无变化的动词)

  cut-cut-cut let-let-let hit-hit-hit put-put-put cost-cost-cost hurt-hurt-hurt read/rid/-read[red]-read[red]

  2.A-A-B型(现在式和过去式同形)

  beat-beat-beaten

  3.A-B-A型(现在式和过去分词同形)

  come-came-come         become-became-become          run-ran-run

  4.A-B-B型(动词的过去式与过去分词相同)

  (1)词尾的“d”变为“t”或词尾是“n”加“t”

  build-built-built lend-lent-lent send-sent-sent spend-spent-spent

  burn-burnt/burned-burnt/burned learn-learnt/learned-learnt/learned     mean-meant-meant

 (2)把原形变为aught及ought的变化(如果原形有a则是aught,无a则是ought)

  buy-bought-bought bring-brought-brought think-thought-thought

  fight-fought-fought catch-caught-caught teach-taught-taught

 (3)eep变ept或过去式、过去分词含有/e/音的动词

  keep-kept-kept sleep-slept-slept sweep-swept-swept leave-left-left    say-said-said meet-met-met 

  spell-spelt-spelt    smell-smelt/smelled-smelt/smelled hold-held-held feel-felt-felt

 (4)其他

  dig-dug-dug find-found-found stand-stood-stood    understand-understood-understood get-got-got 

  spoil-spoilt-spoilt have/has-had-had sell-sold-sold  tell-told-told hang-hanged/hung-hanged/hung  

  pay-paid-paid  lay-laid-laid  lie(说谎)-lied-lied          lose-lost-lost   make-made-made   sit-sat-sat

  shine-shone/shined-shone/shined  win-won-won                      shoot-shot-shot      hear-heard-  heard 

  5.A-B-C型(现在式、过去式和过去分词都不相同)

  (1)in、im的变化(i-a-u型)

  sing-sang-sung ring-rang-rung begin-began-begun     drink-drank-drunk swim-swam-swum sink-sank-sunk

 (2)在动词原形后加-n或-en构成过去分词

  ①ow及aw的变化(过去式以ew结尾,过去分词以wn结尾)

  draw-drew-drawn know-knew-known throw-threw-thrown     blow-blew-blown grow-grew-grown fly-flew-flown

  ②元音是i的开音节的变化(过去分词以en结尾)

  drive-drove-driven rise-rose-risen ride-rode-ridden     write-wrote-written give-gave-given

  ③其他

  see-saw-seen eat-ate-eaten take-took-taken fall-fell-fallen freeze-froze-frozen show-showed-shown          

  speak-spoke-spoken wake-woke-woken choose-chose-chosen   break-broke-broken

  forget-forgot-forgotten lie(躺,放)-lay-lain wear-wore-worn      be(am,is,are)-was/were-been

 (3)其他

  go-went-gone do-did-done

  6.有过去式,没有过去分词的动词

  can-could may-might must-must shall-should will-would

  不规则名词复数形式

  1.以-f或-fe结尾的名词变复数

  (1)加-s,如:

  belief-beliefs roof-roofs gulf-gulfs

  (2)去f,fe加-ves,如:

  half-halves knife-knives leaf-leaves life-lives wolf-wolves

  thief-thieves self-selves wife-wives shelf-shelves

歌诀记忆:树叶(leaf)半数(half)自己(self)黄;妻子(wife)拿刀(knife)去割粮;架(shelf)后窜出一匹狼(wolf);就像小偷(thief)逃命(life)亡。这9个名词变复数时,都要改-f(e)为v,再加-es,其他的以-f(e)结尾的名词则直接加-s变复数。
2.以-o结尾的名词,变复数

  (1)加s,如:photo-photos piano-pianos radio-radios zoo-zoos kilo-kilos

  (2)加es,如:potato-potatoes tomato-tomatoes Negro-Negroes hero-heroes

  歌诀记忆:黑人(Negro)和英雄(hero)爱吃西红柿(tomato)和马铃薯(potato)。除了这四个以-o结尾的名词加-es外,其余的以-o结尾的名词加-s。

  3.表示“国家”的名词变复数

  Chinese-Chinese Japanese-Japanese Englishman-Englishmen

  Frenchman-Frenchmen German-Germans Russian-Russians Indian-Indians

  Canadian-Canadians American-Americans

  歌诀记忆:中(Chinese)日(Japanese)不变,英(Englishman)法(Frenchman)变,其余后面(如German等)加s。

  4.以复数形式出现的名词

  scissors剪刀 goods货物 trousers/pants/shorts裤子 clothes衣服

  glasses眼镜

  5.以s结尾,仍为单数的名词

  (1)maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。

  (2)news是不可数名词。

  (3)the United States,the United Nations应视为单数。

  6.由man和woman构成的合成名词,两个构成部分都要变成复数

  如:man worker-men workers(男工人)

  woman doctor-women doctors(女医生)

  7.以辅音字母+y结尾的名词,变y为i再加-es。例如:

  baby-babies city-cities story-stories party-parties lady-ladies

  diary-diaries army-armies century-centuries copy-copies

  8.以s,x,ch,sh结尾的名词加-es,如:

  class-classes box-boxes watch-watches speech-speeches bus-buses brush-brushes bench-benches beach-beaches boss-bosses

  church-churches
9.其他不规则变化

  man-men woman-women goose-geese foot-feet tooth-teeth

  child-children fish-fish deer-deer sheep-sheep mouse-mice

  fisherman-fishermen

  歌诀记忆:男人(man)?女人(woman)?a变e,鹅(goose)?足(foot)?牙(tooth)?oo变ee。孩子(child)加上ren,鱼(fish)?鹿(deer) 绵羊(sheep)不用变。

  [注]fish指鱼的种类时,要加上-es构成其复数;当指鱼的条数时,单复数同形;指鱼肉时,为不可数名词。

  不规则形容词副词比较级与最高级

  原级 比较级 最高级

  bad  worse  worst

  badly  worse  worst

  far  farther  farthest

  further  furthest

  good  better  best

  ill  worse  worst

  late  later  latest

  little  less  least

  many  more  most

  much  more  most

  old  older

  elder  oldest

  eldest

  well  better  best

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